Git Version Control; A simple introduction

By far, the most widely used version control system is Git. Rather than having one single place for the full version history of the software, every developer’s copy of the code contains the full history of changes. In addition to being distributed, Git has been designed with performance, security and flexibility in mind.

Setup a repository

After installing git, you need to setup your repository to have a virtual space for your project We assume that we have a project already and we need to version it with a new git repository:

**`

cd /path/to/your/existing/code 

git init

`**

We could also point initialisation directly to the project:

**`git init <project directory>`**

now the repository has been initialised.

## Cloning an existing repository: git clone {.}

To obtain a local development clone of an existing central repository, we could use clone and maintain it in our local copy by this code:

**`git clone <repo url>`**

You pass `git clone` a repository URL. We will be using the Git SSH protocol. Git SSH URLs follow a template of: `git@HOSTNAME:USERNAME/REPONAME.git.`

This is an example: git@bitbucket.org:rhyolight/javascript-data-store.git.

## Saving changes to the repository: git add and git commit {.}

You can commit file version changes to your local copy or new initialised repository.After executing this example, your repo will now have `CommitTest.txt` added to the history and will track future updates to the file.

**`cd /path/to/project`** 

**`echo "test content for git tutorial" >> CommitTest.txt`** 

**`git add CommitTest.txt`** 

**`git commit -m "added CommitTest.txt to the repo"`**

The code introduced add and commit as git commands. Another common use case for `git add` is the `--all` option. which will take any changed and untracked files in the repo and add them to the repo and update the repo&#8217;s working tree.

## Repo-to-repo collaboration: git push {.}

Unlike SVN&#8217;s collaboration that depends on the relationship of the central repository and the working copy, Git’s collaboration model is based on repository-to-repository interaction. Instead of checking a working copy into SVN’s central repository, you push or pull commits from one repository to another.

Cloned repositories as they are a local copy of remote repositories are already configured for remote collaboration. So you just need to `git push ` your changes to the remote repository.

For a new initialised local repository, you will need o configure it for remote collaboration. In your hosted git service( like github), create a repository and use its url as the remote repo of your local copy repo.

## Configuration & set up: git config {.}

Once you have a remote repo setup, you will need to add a remote repo url to your local `git config`, and set an upstream branch for your local branches.

<pre>git remote add <remote_name> <remote_repo_url>

This command will map remote repository at <remote_repo_url>to a ref in your local repo under <remote_name>

Now you can push local branches to your remote repository:

git push -u <remote_name> <local_branch_name>

This command will push the local repo branch under <local_branc_name> to the remote repo at <remote_name>.

Default custom setting

The first thing you’ll want to do after installing Git is tell it your name/email and customise some of the default settings.

git --global user.name "John Smith" git config --global user.email john@example.com

You could also setup your favourite editor and a few other settings as you wish.

© 2020
Azadeh Faramarzi

This site is created and maintined by Azadeh Faramarzi , A passionate developer, sport and code lover who loves to share and write when she has some time.